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Network Working GroupP. Saint-Andre
Internet-DraftJ. Miller
Expires: August 4, 2003Jabber Software Foundation
 February 03, 2003

XMPP Instant Messaging
draft-ietf-xmpp-im-02

Status of this Memo

This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts.

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This Internet-Draft will expire on August 4, 2003.

Copyright Notice

Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003). All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

This document describes the specific extensions to and applications of the eXtensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) that are necessary to create a basic instant messaging and presence application.



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Table of Contents




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1. Introduction

1.1 Overview

The core features of the XMPP protocol are defined in XMPP Core[1]. These features, specifically XML streams and the 'jabber:client' and 'jabber:server' namespaces, provide the building blocks for many types of near-real-time applications, which may be layered on top of the core by sending XML stanzas that are scoped by specific XML namespaces. This document describes the specific extensions to and applications of XMPP Core that are used to create the basic functionality expected of an instant messaging and presence application as defined in RFC 2779[2]. Extended namespaces for many other functionality areas have been defined and continue to be defined by the Jabber Software Foundation[3], including service discovery, multi-user chat, search, remote procedure calls, data gathering and forms submission, feature negotiation, message composing events, message expiration, delayed delivery, and file transfer; however, such functionality is not described herein because it is not required by RFC 2779[2].

1.2 Requirements

For the purposes of this document, we stipulate that a basic instant messaging and presence application needs to enable a user to perform the following functionality by using a compliant client:

1.3 Terminology

This document inherits the terminology defined in XMPP Core[1].

The capitalized key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119[4].

1.4 Discussion Venue

The authors welcome discussion and comments related to the topics presented in this document. The preferred forum is the <xmppwg@jabber.org> mailing list, for which archives and subscription information are available at <http://www.jabber.org/cgi-bin/mailman/listinfo/xmppwg/>.

1.5 Intellectual Property Notice

This document is in full compliance with all provisions of Section 10 of RFC 2026. Parts of this specification use the term "jabber" for identifying namespaces and other protocol syntax. Jabber[tm] is a registered trademark of Jabber, Inc. Jabber, Inc. grants permission to the IETF for use of the Jabber trademark in association with this specification and its successors, if any.



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2. Authentication

In order to gain access to the network of XMPP-compliant applications and thus engage in standard IM functionality such as exchanging messages and presence, a client must first register an account with a server (or a server administrator must create such an account); for the sake of completeness, an in-band mechanism for registration is described non-normatively in In-Band Registration.

Once a user has an account, the user must subsequently authenticate with the server in order to gain access to the network. If a user's client is capable of authenticating by means of SASL, it MUST include a 'version' attribute (set to a value of "1.0") within the opening <stream/> element with which it initiated communications with the server. The protocol describing how a client authenticates with a server using SASL is defined XMPP Core[1].

Earlier iterations of the Jabber protocol contained a client-server authentication protocol that was enforced after the stream was negotiated; for the sake of completeness, this protocol, which uses the 'jabber:iq:auth' namespace, is described non-normatively in Authentication Using jabber:iq:auth.



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3. Authorizing a Resource

Once a client has authenticated with a server using SASL, it MUST define a resource that the server can associate with the connection for purposes of authorization and addressing. This is necessary because stanzas sent to or received from the server within the context of an active session use a "full JID" (user@host/resource) for addressing. Authorizing a resource is accomplished by means of the 'jabber:iq:auth' namespace as described below.

Step 1: Client queries server regarding information that is still required to begin a session:

<iq type="get" id="res_1">
  <query xmlns="jabber:iq:auth">
    <username>juliet</username>
  </query>
</iq>
      

Step 2: Server responds with the required fields (in this case, only the username and authorized resource):

<iq type="result" id="res_1">
  <query xmlns="jabber:iq:auth">
    <username>juliet</username>
    <resource/>
  </query>
</iq>
      

Step 3: Client sends name of authorized resource:

<iq type="set" id="res_2">
  <query xmlns="jabber:iq:auth">
    <username>juliet</username>
    <resource>balcony</resource>
  </query>
</iq>
      

Step 4: Server informs client of successful session initiation:

<iq type="result" id="res_2"/>
      

Step 4 (alt): Server informs client of error encountered during session initiation:

<iq type="result" id="res_2">
  <query xmlns="jabber:iq:auth">
    <username>juliet</username>
    <resource></resource>
  </query>
  <error code='406'>Not Acceptable (empty resource)</error>
</iq>
      


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4. Exchanging Messages

Exchanging messages is a basic use of XMPP and is effected when a user sends a message stanza to another user (or, more generally, another entity).

4.1 Specifying an Intended Recipient

A client SHOULD specify an intended recipient for the message by providing an appropriate JID in the 'to' attribute of the <message/> element. Normally, the value of the 'to' attribute specifies an entity other than the sending user (for exceptions, see the next paragraph). The intended recipient MAY be any valid JID (e.g., a user on the same server, a user on a different server, the server itself, another server, or a service).

If no 'to' address is specified, it is implied that the message is addressed to the sending user itself (i.e., the user@host sending the stanza); furthermore, a message explicitly or implicitly addressed to the sending user itself is processed by the server on behalf of that user. A message addressed to a specific connected resource associated with the sending user is delivered to that user@host/resource (which MAY be different from the connected resource that generated the message).

4.2 Specifying a Message Type

As mentioned in XMPP Core[1], there are several defined types of messages (specified by means of a 'type' attribute within the <message/> element). In the context of an instant messaging application, a client MAY include a message type in order to capture the conversational context of the message, thus providing a hint regarding presentation (e.g., in a GUI). If included, the 'type' attribute SHOULD have one of the following values (any other value MAY be ignored):

4.3 Specifying a Message Subject

A message stanza MAY contain a child element specifying the subject of the message. The subject MUST NOT contain mixed content.

A message with a subject:

<message to="romeo@montague.net" from="juliet@capulet.com/balcony">
  <subject>Imploring</subject>
  <body>Wherefore art thou, Romeo?</body>
</message>
        

Multiple <subject/> elements MAY be included, as long as each contains an 'xml:lang' attribute with a distince value.

4.4 Specifying a Conversation Thread

A message stanza MAY contain a child element specifying the conversation thread in which the message is situated, for the purpose of tracking the conversation thread. The content of the <thread/> element is a random string that is generated by the sender in accordance with the algorithm specified in XMPP Core[1]; this string MAY be copied back to the sender in subsequent replies. If included, the <thread/> element MUST have no attributes and MUST NOT contain mixed content.

A threaded conversation:

<message 
    to="romeo@montague.net/orchard" 
    from="juliet@capulet.com/balcony" 
    type="chat">
  <body>Art thou not Romeo, and a Montague?</body>
  <thread>e0ffe42b28561960c6b12b944a092794b9683a38</thread>
</message>

<message 
    to="juliet@capulet.com/balcony" 
    from="romeo@montague.net/orchard" 
    type="chat">
  <body>Neither, fair saint, if either thee dislike.</body>
  <thread>e0ffe42b28561960c6b12b944a092794b9683a38</thread>
</message>

<message 
    to="romeo@montague.net/orchard" 
    from="juliet@capulet.com/balcony" 
    type="chat">
  <body>How cam'st thou hither, tell me, and wherefore?</body>
  <thread>e0ffe42b28561960c6b12b944a092794b9683a38</thread>
</message>
        

4.5 Specifying a Message Body

A message stanza MAY (and often will) contain a child element specifying the body of the message. The body MUST NOT contain mixed content. If it is necessary to provide the message body in an alternate form (e.g., encrypted using the public key infrastructure or formatted using XHTML), the alternate form SHOULD be contained in an appropriately-namespaced child of the message stanza other than the <body/> element.

4.6 Specifying Additional Information

A message stanza MAY house an element containing content that extends the meaning of the message (e.g., an encrypted form of the message body). In common usage this child element is often the <x/> element but MAY be any element, as long as the 'xmlns' namespace declaration is something other than the streams namespace or the default namespace; this extended namespace defines all elements contained within the child element.

4.7 Message-Related Errors

If a message sent by a sender cannot be delivered, a server SHOULD return that message to the sender in a message stanza of type "error" along with an appropriate error message (for a list of error messages, see XMPP Core[1]).

A message-related error:

<message 
    to="juliet@capulet.com" 
    from="romeo@montague.net">
  <body>Sleep dwell upon thine eyes</body>
</message>

<message
    to="romeo@montague.net"
    from="juliet@capulet.com" 
    type="error">
  <body>Sleep dwell upon thine eyes</body>
  <error code="404">No Such JID</error>
</message>
        

An entity that receives a message stanza of type 'error' MUST NOT respond to the stanza by sending a further message stanza of type 'error'; this helps to prevent looping.



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5. Exchanging Presence Information

Exchanging presence information is made relatively straightforward within XMPP by using presence stanzas. However, we see here a contrast to the handling of messages: although a client MAY send directed presence information to another entity, in general presence information is sent from a client to a server and then broadcasted by the server to any entities that are subscribed to the presence of the sending entity. (Note: in the terminology of RFC 2778[5], the only watchers in XMPP are subscribers.)

5.1 Client and Server Responsibilities

When a client connects to a server, it SHOULD send an initial presence stanza to the server to express default availability. This presence stanza SHOULD have no type.

Upon receiving initial presence from a client, the server sends presence probes from the full JID (user@host/resource) of the user to any remote entities that are subscribed to the user's presence (as represented in the user's roster) in order to determine if they are available. (The remote server is responsible for responding to the presence probe only when (1) the probing entity has been allowed to access the probed entity's presence, e.g., by server rules or user subscriptions, and (2) the probed entity is available; the probing entity's server then informs the probing entity of the probed entity's last known available presence, for all of the probed entity's resources if applicable.)

Throughout the active session of a connected resource associated with the client, the server is responsible for broadcasting any changes in the availability status of the connected resource to the subscribed entities that are available, so that such entities are apprised of availability changes.

Finally, the server MUST notify all of the subscribed and available entities when a connected resource becomes unavailable.

5.2 Sending Initial Presence

Upon authenticating, a client SHOULD send initial presence to its server indicating that the connected resource is available for communications. This presence stanza SHOULD have no type.

Initial presence sent from client to server:

<presence/>
        

5.3 Specifying Availability Status

A client MAY provide further information about its availability status by using the <show/> element. As defined in XMPP Core[1], the recognized values for the show element are "away", "chat", "xa", and "dnd".

Availability status:

<presence>
  <show>away</show>
</presence>
        

5.4 Specifying Detailed Status Information

In conjunction with the <show/> element, a client MAY provide detailed status information by using the <status/> element. The content of this element is a natural-language description of the client's current availability status.

Detailed status information:

<presence>
  <show>dnd</show>
  <status>Busy fighting the Romans</status>
</presence>
        

5.5 Probing for Presence

A server MAY probe for the current presence of another entity. A user or client SHOULD NOT send presence stanzas of type 'probe'.

5.6 Sending Final Presence

Upon ending its session with a server, a client SHOULD send a final presence stanza that is explicitly of type unavailable.

Sending final presence to express unavailable state:

<presence type="unavailable"/>
        

Optionally, final presence MAY contain one or more <status/> elements specifying the reason why the user is no longer available.

5.7 Determining When a Contact Went Offline

The server SHOULD maintain a record of the time at which a user sent final presence. An authorized subscriber to that user's presence MAY determine the time of last activity by sending an IQ stanza to the user's user@host address containing an empty <query/> element scoped by the 'jabber:iq:last' namespace:

Requesting the last active time of a user:

<iq type='get' to='user@host'>
  <query xmlns='jabber:iq:last'/>
</iq>
        

The server MUST return an IQ stanza of type 'result' with the number of seconds since the user was last active:

Returning the last active time of a user:

<iq from='user@host' type='result' to='subscriber@domain/resource'>
  <query seconds='76490' xmlns='jabber:iq:last'/>
</iq>
        

If the entity requesting the time of last activity is not an authorized subscriber to the user's presence, the server MUST return an IQ stanza of type 'error' with an error code of 403 (Forbidden):

Requester is forbidden to view the last active time of a user:

<iq from='user@host' type='result' to='subscriber@domain/resource'>
  <query xmlns='jabber:iq:last'/>
  <error code='403'>Forbidden</error>
</iq>
        


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6. Managing Subscriptions

In order to protect the privacy of instant messaging users and any other entities, presence and availability information is made available only to other entities that the user has approved. When a user has agreed that another entity may view its presence, the entity is said to have a subscription to the user's presence information. Note well that a subscription lasts across sessions; indeed, it lasts until the subscriber unsubscribes or the subscribee cancels the previously-granted subscription. Subscriptions are completed within XMPP by sending presence stanzas containing specially-defined attributes.

6.1 Requesting a Subscription

A request to subscribe to another entity's presence is made by sending a presence stanza of type "subscribe".

Sending a subscription request:

<presence 
    to="juliet@capulet.com" 
    from="romeo@montague.net" 
    type="subscribe"/>
        

6.2 Handling a Subscription Request

When a client receives a subscription request from another entity, it MAY accept the request by sending a presence stanza of type "subscribed" or decline the request by sending a presence stanza of type "unsubscribed".

Accepting a subscription request:

<presence 
    to="romeo@montague.net" 
    from="juliet@capulet.com" 
    type="subscribed"/>
        

Denying a presence subscription request:

<presence 
    to="romeo@montague.net" 
    from="juliet@capulet.com" 
    type="unsubscribed"/>
        

6.3 Cancelling a Subscription from Another Entity

If a user would like to cancel a previously-granted subscription request, it sends a presence stanza of type "unsubscribed".

Cancelling a previously granted subscription request:

<presence 
    to="romeo@montague.net" 
    from="juliet@capulet.com" 
    type="unsubscribed"/>
        

6.4 Unsubscribing from Another Entity's Presence

If a user would like to unsubscribe from the presence of another entity, it sends a presence stanza of type "unsubscribe".

Unsubscribing from an entity's presence:

<presence 
    to="juliet@capulet.com" 
    from="romeo@montague.net" 
    type="unsubscribe"/>
        


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7. Blocking Communication

Most instant messaging systems have found it necessary to implement some method for users to block communications from specific other users (this is also required by section 2.3.5 of RFC 2779[2]). In XMPP this is done using the 'jabber:iq:privacy' namespace by managing one's privacy lists (also called "zebra lists" since they are flexible combinations of blacklists and whitelists).

7.1 Retrieving One's Privacy Lists

Client requests privacy lists from server:

<iq type='get' id='zebra1'>
  <query xmlns='jabber:iq:privacy'/>
</iq>
        

Server sends privacy lists to client:

<iq type='result' id='zebra1' to='romeo@montague.net/orchard'>
  <query xmlns='jabber:iq:privacy'>
    <active name='private'/>
    <list name='public'>
      <item jid='tybalt@capulet.com' type='deny'/>
      <item type='allow'/>
    </list>
    <list name='private'>
      <item subscription='both' type='allow'/>
      <item type='deny'/>
    </list>
    <list name='special'>
      <item jid='juliet@capulet.com' type='allow'/>
      <item jid='benvolio@shakespeare.lit' type='allow'/>
      <item jid='mercutio@shakespeare.lit' type='allow'/>
      <item type='deny'/>
    </list>
  </query>
</iq>
        

In this example, the user has three lists: (1) 'public', which allows communications from everyone except one specific entity; (2) 'private', which allows communications only from contacts who have a bi-directional subscription with the user; and (3) 'special', which allows communications only from three specific entities. The active list currently being applied by the server is the 'private' list.

7.2 Changing the Active List

In order to change the active list currently being applied by the server, the user MUST send an IQ stanza of type 'set' with a <query/> element scoped by the 'jabber:iq:privacy' namespace that contains an empty <active/> child element possessing a 'name' attribute whose value is set to the desired list name.

Client requests change of active list:

<iq type='set' id='zebra2'>
  <query xmlns='jabber:iq:privacy'>
    <active name='special'/>
  </query>
</iq>
        

Server acknowledges success of active list change:

<iq type='result' id='zebra2' to='juliet@capulet.com/balcony'/>
        

7.3 Editing a Privacy List

In order to edit a privacy list, the user MUST send an IQ stanza of type 'set' with a <query/> element scoped by the 'jabber:iq:privacy' namespace that contains one or more <list/> child elements possessing a 'name' attribute whose value is set to the list name the user would like to edit. Each <list/> element MUST contain one or more <item/> elements, which specify the user's desired changes to the list by including all elements in the list (not the "delta"); the same protocol is used to create a new list.

Client edits a privacy list:

<iq type='set' id='zebra3'>
  <query xmlns='jabber:iq:privacy'>
    <list name='public'>
      <item jid='tybalt@capulet.com' type='deny'/>
      <item jid='paris@shakespeare.lit' type='deny'/>
      <item type='allow'/>
    </list>
  </query>
</iq>
        

Server acknowledges success of list edit:

<iq type='result' id='zebra3' to='juliet@capulet.com/balcony'/>
        

In this example, the user has added one additional entity to the "blacklist" portion of this privacy list.

7.4 Removing a Privacy List

In order to remove a privacy list, the user MUST send an IQ stanza of type 'set' with a <query/> element scoped by the 'jabber:iq:privacy' namespace that contains one or more empty <list/> child elements possessing a 'name' attribute whose value is set to the list name the user would like to remove.

Client removes a privacy list:

<iq type='set' id='zebra3'>
  <query xmlns='jabber:iq:privacy'>
    <list name='private'/>
  </query>
</iq>
        

Server acknowledges success of list removal:

<iq type='result' id='zebra3' to='juliet@capulet.com/balcony'/>
        

7.5 Blacklisted Entity Attempts to Communicate with User

If a blacklisted entity attempts to communicate with the user, the user's server MUST return an error of type 405 (Not Allowed) to the sending entity.

Blacklisted entity attempts communication:

<message to='romeo@montague.net' from='tybalt@capulet.com/pda'>
  <body>Have at thee, coward!</body>
</message>
        

Server returns error to blacklisted entity:

<message 
    type='error'
    from='romeo@montague.net' 
    to='tybalt@capulet.com/pda'>
  <body>Have at thee, coward!</body>
  <error code='405'>Not Allowed</error>
</message>
        


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8. Managing One's Roster

One's list of contacts is called a roster. A roster is stored by the server so that a user may access roster information from any connected resource.

8.1 Retrieving One's Roster on Login

Upon connecting to the server, a client MAY request the roster (however, because receiving the roster may not be desirable for all resources, e.g., a connection with limited bandwidth, the client's request for the roster is OPTIONAL).

Client requests current roster from server:

<iq id="roster_1" type="get">
  <query xmlns="jabber:iq:roster"/>
</iq>
        

Client receives roster from the server:

<iq 
    from="capulet.com"
    to="juliet@capulet.com/balcony"
    id="roster_1" 
    type="result">
  <query xmlns="jabber:iq:roster>
    <item 
        jid="romeo@montague.net" 
        name="Romeo" 
        subscription="both"/>
    <item 
        jid="mercutio@montague.net" 
        name="Mercutio" 
        subscription="both">
      <group>Friends</group>
    </item> 
    <item 
        jid="benvolio@montague.net" 
        name="Benvolio" 
        subscription="both">
      <group>Friends</group>
    </item> 
  </query>
</iq>
        

8.2 Adding a Roster Item

At any time, a user MAY add an item to his or her roster.

Client adds a new item:

<iq type="set" id="roster_2">
  <query xmlns="jabber:iq:roster">  
    <item 
        name="Nurse" 
        jid="nurse@capulet.com">
      <group>Servants</group>
    </item>
  </query>
</iq>
        

The server is responsible for updating the roster information in persistent storage, and also for pushing that change out to all connected resources for the user using an IQ stanza of type "set". This enables all connected resources to remain in sync with the server-based roster information.

Server replies with an IQ result to the sending resource and pushes the updated roster information to all connected resources:

<iq 
    from="capulet.com" 
    to="juliet@capulet.com/balcony"
    type="result" 
    id="roster_2"/> 
<iq 
    from="capulet.com"
    to="juliet@capulet.com/balcony"
    type="set" 
    id="roster_3"/>
  <query xmlns="jabber:iq:roster">  
    <item 
        name="Nurse" 
        jid="nurse@capulet.com"
        subscription="none">
      <group>Servants</group>
    </item>
  </query>
</iq>
<iq 
    from="capulet.com"
    to="juliet@capulet.com/chamber"
    type="set" 
    id="roster_3"/>
  <query xmlns="jabber:iq:roster">  
    <item 
        name="Nurse" 
        jid="nurse@capulet.com"
        subscription="none">
      <group>Servants</group>
    </item>
  </query>
</iq>
        

Updating an existing roster item (e.g., changing the Group) is done in the same way as adding a new roster item, i.e., by sending the roster item in an IQ set to the server.

8.3 Deleting a Roster Item

At any time, a user MAY delete an item from its roster by doing an IQ set and making sure that the value of the 'subscription' attribute is "remove" (a compliant server SHOULD ignore any other values of the 'subscription' attribute when received from a client).

Client removes a item:

<iq type="set" id="roster_2">
  <query xmlns="jabber:iq:roster">  
    <item 
        name="Nurse" 
        jid="nurse@capulet.com"
        subscription="remove">
      <group>Servants</group>
    </item>
  </query>
</iq>
        

As with adding a roster item, when deleting a roster item the server is responsible for updating the roster information in persistent storage, and also for pushing that change out to all connected resources for the user using an IQ stanza of type "set".

A server implementation SHOULD cancel any existing presence subscriptions when a roster item is removed.



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9. Routing and Delivery Guidelines

XML stanzas that are not handled directly by a server (e.g., for the purpose of data storage or rebroadcasting) are routed or delivered to the intended recipient of the stanza as represented by a JID in the 'to' attribute. The following rules apply:



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10. Security Considerations

For security considerations, refer to the relevant section of XMPP Core[1].



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References

[1] Saint-Andre, P. and J. Miller, "XMPP Core (draft-ietf-xmpp-core-02, work in progress)", February 2003.
[2] Day, M., Aggarwal, S., Mohr, G. and J. Vincent, "A Model for Presence and Instant Messaging", RFC 2779, February 2000.
[3] Jabber Software Foundation, "Jabber Software Foundation", August 2001.
[4] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[5] Day, M., Rosenberg, J. and H. Sugano, "A Model for Presence and Instant Messaging", RFC 2778, February 2000.
[6] Dawson, F. and T. Howes, "vCard MIME Directory Profile", RFC 2426, September 1998.


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Authors' Addresses

  Peter Saint-Andre
  Jabber Software Foundation
EMail:  stpeter@jabber.org
URI:  http://www.jabber.org/people/stpeter.php
  
  Jeremie Miller
  Jabber Software Foundation
EMail:  jeremie@jabber.org
URI:  http://www.jabber.org/people/jer.php


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Appendix A. In-Band Registration

This section is provided for informational purposes only and is not normative.

Registering with a server is necessary in order for a user to engage in any desired functionality by means of a client. Certainly such registration MAY (and frequently does) occur outside the context of an instant messaging and presence application. However, XMPP also enables a user to register with a server within the context of an IM system. This functionality is enabled by sending and receiving IQ stanzas in a request-response pattern, where the IQ stanzas contain <query/> elements in the 'jabber:iq:register' namespace. Because in-band registration is not required by RFC 2779 or any XMPP-specific requirements, this section is non-normative.

A.1 Registration Data Flow

Step 1: Client queries server regarding information that is required in order to register:

<iq type="get" 
    to="capulet.com"
    id="reg_1">
  <query xmlns="jabber:iq:register"/>
</iq>
          

Step 2: Server responds with the required registration fields:

<iq type="result" 
    from="capulet.com" 
    id="reg_1">
  <query xmlns="jabber:iq:register">
    <instructions>
      Choose a username and password to register with this service.
    </instructions>
    <email/>
    <password/>
    <username/>
  </query>
</iq>
          

Note: the client is REQUIRED to provide information for all of the elements (other than <instructions/>) contained in the IQ result. (Note also that the XML stanza shown above does not include a 'to' attribute, since the connected socket does not yet have an account.)

Step 3: Client provides required information:

<iq type="set" 
    to="capulet.com" 
    id="reg_2">
  <query xmlns="jabber:iq:register">
    <email>juliet@capulet.com</email>
    <password>R0m30</password>
    <username>juliet</username>
  </query>
</iq>
          

Step 4: Server informs client of successful registration:

<iq 
    type="result" 
    from="capulet.com" 
    id="reg_2"/>
            

Step 4 (alt 1): Server informs client of failed registration (required field not provided):

<iq 
    type="error" 
    from="capulet.com" 
    id="reg_2"/>
  <query xmlns="jabber:iq:register">
    <email>juliet@capulet.com</email>
    <password>R0m30</password>
  </query>
  <error code="406">Not Acceptable</error>
</iq>
          

Step 4 (alt 2): Client is already registered:

<iq 
    type="error" 
    from="capulet.com" 
    id="reg_2"/>
  <query xmlns="jabber:iq:register">
    <registered/>
    <email>juliet@capulet.com</email>
    <password>R0m30</password>
    <username>juliet</username>
  </query>
  <error code="400">Bad Request</error>
</iq>
          

A.2 Cancellation Data Flow

The 'jabber:iq:register' namespace also makes it possible for a user to cancel a registration with a server by sending a <remove/> element as shown below.

Step 1: Client sends request to unregister:

<iq type="set" 
    to="capulet.com" 
    id="unreg_1">
  <query xmlns="jabber:iq:register">
    <remove/>
  </query>
</iq>
          

Step 2: Server informs client of successful unregistration:

<iq 
    type="result" 
    from="capulet.com" 
    id="unreg_1"/>
          


 TOC 

Appendix B. Authentication Using jabber:iq:auth

This section is provided for informational purposes only and is not normative.

The 'jabber:iq:auth' namespace provides two things: (1) a way for a client to authenticate with a server and (2) a way to define an authorized resource representing a specific connection or session.

The following is the data flow for a complete example of authentication and authorization with a server using the 'jabber:iq:auth' namespace.

Step 1: Client queries server regarding information that is required in order to authenticate:

<iq type="get" id="auth_1">
  <query xmlns="jabber:iq:auth">
    <username>juliet</username>
  </query>
</iq>
        

Step 2: Server responds with the required authentication fields:

<iq type="result" id="auth_1">
  <query xmlns="jabber:iq:auth">
    <username>juliet</username>
    <digest/>
    <resource/>
  </query>
</iq>
        

Step 3: Client sends authentication information (encrypted password):

<iq type="set" id="auth_2">
  <query xmlns="jabber:iq:auth">
    <username>juliet</username>
    <digest>64d60e40febe09264c52bc9cbddd5dd1147fae97</digest>
    <resource>balcony</resource>
  </query>
</iq>
        

Step 4: Server informs client of successful authentication:

<iq type="result" id="auth_2"/>
        

Step 4 (alt): Server informs client of failed authentication:

<iq 
    type="error" 
    from="capulet.com" 
    id="auth_2"/>
  <query xmlns="jabber:iq:auth">
    <username>juliet</username>
    <digest>64d60e40febe09264c5wrongpassword2bc9cbddd5dd1147fae97</digest>
    <resource>balcony</resource>
  </query>
  <error code="401">Unauthorized</error>
</iq>
        

The algorithm for generating digest passwords is as follows:

  1. Concatenate the Stream ID received from the server with the password.
  2. Hash the concatenated string according to the SHA1 algorithm.
  3. Ensure that the hash output is in hexidecimal format, not binary or base64).
  4. Convert the hash output to all lowercase characters.



 TOC 

Appendix C. vCards

This section is provided for informational purposes only and is not normative.

Sections 3.1.3 and 4.1.4 of RFC 2779[2] require that it be possible to retrieve non-IM contact information for other users (e.g., telephone number or email address). An XML representation of the vCard specification defined in RFC 2426[6] is in common use within the Jabber community to provide such information. For the sake of completeness, this section describes that protocol. This section is non-normative.

The basic functionality is for a user to store and retrieve an XML representation of his or her vCard using the data storage capabilities native to all existing Jabber server implementations. This is done by sending an <iq/> of type "set" (storage) or "get" (retrieval) to one's Jabber server containing a <vCard/> child scoped by the 'vcard-temp' namespace, with the <vCard/> element containing the actual vCard-XML elements as defined by the vCard-XML DTD. Other users may then view one's vCard information. (There is currently no access control over who may view vCard information.)

C.1 Retrieving One's vCard

A user may retrieve his or her own vCard by sending XML of the following form to his or her own JID:

<iq to='stpeter@jabber.org' type='get' id='vcard1'>
  <vCard xmlns='vcard-temp'/>
</iq>
          

The server must then return the vCard to the user:

<iq 
    from='stpeter@jabber.org'
    to='stpeter@jabber.org/Gabber'
    type='result'
    id='v1'>
  <vCard xmlns='vcard-temp'>
    <FN>Peter Saint-Andre</FN>
    <N>
      <FAMILY>Saint-Andre<FAMILY>
      <GIVEN>Peter</GIVEN>
      <MIDDLE/>
    </N>
    <NICKNAME>stpeter</NICKNAME>
    <URL>http://www.jabber.org/people/stpeter.php</URL>
    <BDAY>1966-08-06</BDAY>
    <ORG>
      <ORGNAME>Jabber Software Foundation</ORGNAME>
      <ORGUNIT/>
    </ORG>
    <TITLE>Executive Director</TITLE>
    <ROLE>Patron Saint</ROLE>
    <TEL><VOICE/><WORK/><NUMBER>303-308-3282</NUMBER></TEL>
    <TEL><FAX/><WORK/><NUMBER/></TEL>
    <TEL><MSG/><WORK/><NUMBER/></TEL>
    <ADR>
      <WORK/>
      <EXTADD>Suite 600</EXTADD>
      <STREET>1899 Wynkoop Street</STREET>
      <LOCALITY>Denver</LOCALITY>
      <REGION>CO</REGION>
      <PCODE>80202</PCODE>
      <CTRY>USA</CTRY>
    </ADR>
    <TEL><VOICE/><HOME/><NUMBER>303-555-1212</NUMBER></TEL>
    <TEL><FAX/><HOME/><NUMBER/></TEL>
    <TEL><MSG/><HOME/><NUMBER/></TEL>
    <ADR>
      <HOME/>
      <EXTADD/>
      <STREET/>
      <LOCALITY>Denver</LOCALITY>
      <REGION>CO</REGION>
      <PCODE>80209</PCODE>
      <CTRY>USA</CTRY>
    </ADR>
    <EMAIL><INTERNET/><PREF/><USERID>stpeter@jabber.org</USERID></EMAIL>
    <JABBERID>stpeter@jabber.org</JABBERID>
    <DESC>
      More information about me is located on my 
      personal website: http://www.saint-andre.com/
    </DESC>
  </vCard>
</iq>
          

C.2 Updating One's vCard

A user may update his or her vCard by sending an IQ of type "set" to the server, following the format in the previous use case.

If a user attempts to perform an IQ set on another user's vCard, the server must return a 403 "Forbidden" error.

C.3 Viewing Another User's vCard

A user may view another user's vCard by sending an IQ of type "get" to the other user's bare JID. A compliant server must return the vCard to the requestor and not forward the IQ to the requestee's connected resource.

<iq 
    to='jer@jabber.org'
    type='get'
    id='v3'>
  <vCard xmlns='vcard-temp'/>
</iq>
          

The server should then return the other user's vCard to the requestor:

<iq 
    from='jer@jabber.org' 
    to='stpeter@jabber.org/home' 
    type='result'
    id='v3'>
  <vCard xmlns='vcard-temp'>
    <FN>JeremieMiller</FN>
    <N>
      <GIVEN>Jeremie</GIVEN>
      <FAMILY>Miller</FAMILY>
      <MIDDLE/>
    </N>
    <NICKNAME>jer</NICKNAME>
    <EMAIL><INTERNET/><PREF/><USERID>jeremie@jabber.org</USERID></EMAIL>
    <JABBERID>jer@jabber.org</JABBERID>
  </vCard>
</iq>
          


 TOC 

Appendix D. Formal Definitions

D.1 jabber:iq:auth

D.1.1 DTD

<!ELEMENT query ((username? | (password | digest)? | resource)*)>

<!ELEMENT username (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT password (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT digest (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT resource (#PCDATA)>
            

D.1.2 Schema

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
<xsd:schema
    xmlns:xsd='http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema'
    targetNamespace='http://www.jabber.org/protocol'
    xmlns='http://www.jabber.org/protocol'
    elementFormDefault='qualified'>

<xsd:element name='query'>
  <xsd:complexType>
    <xsd:choice minOccurs='0' maxOccurs='unbounded'>
      <xsd:element ref='username'/>
      <xsd:choice minOccurs='0' maxOccurs='1'>
        <xsd:element ref='password'/>
        <xsd:element ref='digest'/>
      </xsd:choice>
      <xsd:element ref='resource'/>
    </xsd:choice>
  </xsd:complexType>
</xsd:element>

<xsd:element name='username' type='xsd:string'/>
<xsd:element name='password' type='xsd:string'/>
<xsd:element name='digest' type='xsd:string'/>
<xsd:element name='resource' type='xsd:string'/>
            

D.2 jabber:iq:last

D.2.1 DTD

<!ELEMENT query EMPTY>
<!ATTLIST query seconds #IMPLIED>
            

D.2.2 Schema

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
<xsd:schema
    xmlns:xsd='http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema'
    targetNamespace='http://www.jabber.org/protocol'
    xmlns='http://www.jabber.org/protocol'
    elementFormDefault='qualified'>

  <xsd:element name='query'>
    <xsd:complexType>
      <xsd:attribute name='seconds' type='xsd:unsignedLong' use='optional'/>
    </xsd:complexType>
  </xsd:element>

</xsd:schema>
            

D.3 jabber:iq:privacy

D.3.1 DTD

<!ELEMENT query (active? | list*)>
<!ELEMENT active EMPTY>
<!ATTLIST active name CDATA #REQUIRED>
<!ELEMENT list (item*)>
<!ATTLIST list name CDATA #REQUIRED>
<!ELEMENT item ((iq? | message? | presence?)*)>
<!ATTLIST item
    jid CDATA #IMPLIED
    type (allow | deny) #REQUIRED
    subscription (from | to) #IMPLIED>
<!ELEMENT iq EMPTY>
<!ELEMENT message EMPTY>
<!ELEMENT presence EMPTY>
            

D.3.2 Schema

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
<xsd:schema
    xmlns:xsd='http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema'
    targetNamespace='http://www.jabber.org/protocol'
    xmlns='http://www.jabber.org/protocol'
    elementFormDefault='qualified'>

  <xsd:element name='query'>
    <xsd:complexType>
      <xsd:choice minOccurs='0' maxOccurs='unbounded'>
        <xsd:element ref='active' minOccurs='0' maxOccurs='1'/>
        <xsd:element ref='list' minOccurs='0' maxOccurs='unbounded'/>
      </xsd:choice>
    </xsd:complexType>
  </xsd:element>

  <xsd:element name='active'>
    <xsd:complexType>
      <xsd:attribute name='name' type='xsd:string' use='required'/>
    </xsd:complexType>
  </xsd:element>

  <xsd:element name='list'>
    <xsd:complexType>
      <xsd:choice minOccurs='0' maxOccurs='unbounded'>
        <xsd:element ref='item' minOccurs='0' maxOccurs='unbounded'/>
      </xsd:choice>
      <xsd:attribute name='name' type='xsd:string' use='required'/>
    </xsd:complexType>
  </xsd:element>

  <xsd:element name='item'>
    <xsd:complexType>
      <xsd:choice> 
        <xsd:element ref='iq' minOccurs='0' maxOccurs='1'/>
        <xsd:element ref='message' minOccurs='0' maxOccurs='1'/>
        <xsd:element ref='presence' minOccurs='0' maxOccurs='1'/>
      </xsd:choice>
      <xsd:attribute name='jid' type='xsd:string' use='required'/>
      <xsd:attribute name='type' use='required'>
        <xsd:simpleType>
          <xsd:restriction base='xsd:NCName'>
            <xsd:enumeration value='allow'/>
            <xsd:enumeration value='deny'/>
          </xsd:restriction>
        </xsd:simpleType>
      </xsd:attribute>
      <xsd:attribute name='subscription' use='optional'>
        <xsd:simpleType>
          <xsd:restriction base='xsd:NCName'>
            <xsd:enumeration value='to'/>
            <xsd:enumeration value='from'/>
            <xsd:enumeration value='both'/>
          </xsd:restriction>
        </xsd:simpleType>
      </xsd:attribute>
    </xsd:complexType>
  </xsd:element>

  <xsd:element name='iq'/>
  <xsd:element name='message'/>
  <xsd:element name='presence'/>

</xsd:schema>
            

D.4 jabber:iq:register

D.4.1 Children

While numerous fields are available for use in the 'jabber:iq:register' namespace, only those fields (other than <instructions/>) sent from the server in an IQ result are REQUIRED in order to register. The following are the allowable children of a <query/> element scoped by the 'jabber:iq:register' namespace:

D.4.2 DTD

<!ELEMENT query ((instructions? | username? | 
    password? | name? | email? | address? | 
    city? | state? | zip? | phone? | url? | 
    date? | misc? | text? | remove?)*)>

<!ELEMENT instructions (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT username (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT password (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT name (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT email (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT address (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT city (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT state (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT zip (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT phone (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT url (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT date (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT misc (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT text (#PCDATA)>
<!ELEMENT remove EMPTY>
            

D.4.3 Schema

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
<xsd:schema
    xmlns:xsd='http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema'
    targetNamespace='http://www.jabber.org/protocol'
    xmlns='http://www.jabber.org/protocol'
    elementFormDefault='qualified'>

  <xsd:element name='query'>
    <xsd:complexType>
      <xsd:choice minOccurs='0' maxOccurs='unbounded'>
        <xsd:element ref='instructions'/>
        <xsd:element ref='username'/>
        <xsd:element ref='password'/>
        <xsd:element ref='name'/>
        <xsd:element ref='email'/>
        <xsd:element ref='address'/>
        <xsd:element ref='city'/>
        <xsd:element ref='state'/>
        <xsd:element ref='zip'/>
        <xsd:element ref='phone'/>
        <xsd:element ref='url'/>
        <xsd:element ref='date'/>
        <xsd:element ref='misc'/>
        <xsd:element ref='text'/>
        <xsd:element ref='remove'/>
      </xsd:choice>
    </xsd:complexType>
  </xsd:element>

  <xsd:element name='instructions' type='xsd:string'/>
  <xsd:element name='username' type='xsd:string'/>
  <xsd:element name='password' type='xsd:string'/>
  <xsd:element name='name' type='xsd:string'/>
  <xsd:element name='email' type='xsd:string'/>
  <xsd:element name='address' type='xsd:string'/>
  <xsd:element name='city' type='xsd:string'/>
  <xsd:element name='state' type='xsd:string'/>
  <xsd:element name='zip' type='xsd:string'/>
  <xsd:element name='phone' type='xsd:string'/>
  <xsd:element name='url' type='xsd:string'/>
  <xsd:element name='date' type='xsd:string'/>
  <xsd:element name='misc' type='xsd:string'/>
  <xsd:element name='text' type='xsd:string'/>
  <xsd:element name='remove'/>

</xsd:schema>
            

D.5 jabber:iq:roster

D.5.1 Children

A <query/> element scoped by the 'jabber:iq:roster' namespace MAY contain zero or more <item/> elements. An item element MAY contain the following attributes:

An <item/> element MAY contain zero or more instances of the following element:

D.5.2 DTD

<!ELEMENT query ((item)*)>

<!ELEMENT item ((group)*)>
<!ATTLIST item
    jid CDATA #REQUIRED
    name CDATA #IMPLIED
    subscription ( to | from | both | none | remove ) #IMPLIED
    ask ( subscribe | unsubscribe ) #IMPLIED
    >
<!ELEMENT group (#PCDATA)>
            

D.5.3 Schema

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
<xsd:schema
    xmlns:xsd='http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema'
    targetNamespace='http://www.jabber.org/protocol'
    xmlns='http://www.jabber.org/protocol'
    elementFormDefault='qualified'>

  <xsd:element name='query'>
    <xsd:complexType>
      <xsd:sequence minOccurs='0' maxOccurs='unbounded'>
        <xsd:element ref='item'/>
      </xsd:sequence>
    </xsd:complexType>
  </xsd:element>

  <xsd:element name='item'>
    <xsd:complexType>
      <xsd:sequence minOccurs='0' maxOccurs='unbounded'>
        <xsd:element ref='group'/>
      </xsd:sequence>
      <xsd:attribute name='jid' type='xsd:string' use='required'/>
      <xsd:attribute name='name' type='xsd:string' use='optional'/>
      <xsd:attribute name='subscription' use='optional'>
        <xsd:simpleType>
          <xsd:restriction base='xsd:string'>
            <xsd:enumeration value='to'/>
            <xsd:enumeration value='from'/>
            <xsd:enumeration value='both'/>
            <xsd:enumeration value='none'/>
            <xsd:enumeration value='remove'/>
          </xsd:restriction>
        </xsd:simpleType>
      </xsd:attribute>
      <xsd:attribute name='ask' use='optional'>
        <xsd:simpleType>
          <xsd:restriction base='xsd:string'>
            <xsd:enumeration value='subscribe'/>
            <xsd:enumeration value='unsubscribe'/>
          </xsd:restriction>
        </xsd:simpleType>
      </xsd:attribute>
    </xsd:complexType>
  </xsd:element>

  <xsd:element name='group' type='xsd:string'/>

</xsd:schema>
            

D.6 vcard-temp

The following DTD is a slightly modified version of that contained in the second vCard-XML Internet-Draft authored by Frank Dawson. The only modifications were to add the JABBERID and DESC elements.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<!--
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000). All Rights Reserved.

This document and translations of it may be copied and
furnished to others, and derivative works that comment
on or otherwise explain it or assist in its implmentation 
may be prepared, copied, published and distributed, in whole
or in part, without restriction of any kind, provided that
the above copyright notice and this paragraph are included
on all such copies and derivative works.

However, this document itself may not be modified in any
way, such as by removing the copyright notice or references
to the Internet Society or other Internet organizations,
except as needed for the purpose of developing Internet
standards in which case the procedures for copyrights
defined in the Internet Standards process MUST be followed,
or as required to translate it into languages other than English.

The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will
not be revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or
assigns.

This document and the information contained herein is provided
on an "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE
USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR
ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
-->

<!-- ==== -->

<!-- Root element and container for one
  or more vCard objects -->
<!ELEMENT xCard (vCard)+>

<!-- Individual vCard container -->
<!ELEMENT vCard (
  (VERSION, FN, N),
  (NICKNAME?,
  PHOTO?, 
  BDAY?, 
  ADR?, 
  LABEL?, 
  TEL?, 
  EMAIL?,
  JABBERID?,
  MAILER?, 
  TZ?, 
  GEO?, 
  TITLE?, 
  ROLE?,  
  LOGO?, 
  AGENT?, 
  ORG?, 
  CATEGORIES?, 
  NOTE?, 
  PRODID?, 
  REV?, 
  SORT-STRING?, 
  SOUND?, 
  UID?, 
  URL?, 
  CLASS?, 
  KEY?,
  DESC?
)*)>

  <!-- vCard specification version property. 
    This MUST be 2.0, if the document conforms to RFC 2426. -->
  <!ELEMENT VERSION (#PCDATA)>

  <!-- Formatted or display name property. -->
  <!ELEMENT FN (#PCDATA)>

  <!-- Structured name property. Name components with multiple
    values must be specified as a comma separated
	list of values. -->
  <!ELEMENT N ( FAMILY?, GIVEN?, MIDDLE?, PREFIX?, SUFFIX?)>
  
    <!ELEMENT FAMILY (#PCDATA)>
    <!ELEMENT GIVEN (#PCDATA)>
    <!ELEMENT MIDDLE (#PCDATA)>
    <!ELEMENT PREFIX (#PCDATA)>
    <!ELEMENT SUFFIX (#PCDATA)>

  <!-- Nickname property. Multiple nicknames must be
    specified as a comma separated list value. -->
  <!ELEMENT NICKNAME (#PCDATA)>

  <!-- Photograph property. Value is either a BASE64 encoded
    binary value or a URI to the external content. -->
  <!ELEMENT PHOTO ((TYPE, BINVAL) | EXTVAL)>

  <!-- Birthday property. Value must be an ISO 8601 formatted
    date or date/time value. -->
  <!ELEMENT BDAY (#PCDATA)>

  <!-- Structured address property. Address components with
    multiple values must be specified as a comma separated list
    of values. -->
  <!ELEMENT ADR (
    HOME?, 
    WORK?, 
    POSTAL?, 
    PARCEL?, 
    (DOM | INTL)?, 
    PREF?, 
    POBOX?, 
    EXTADR?, 
    STREET?, 
    LOCALITY?, 
    REGION?, 
    PCODE?, 
    CTRY?
  )>
  
    <!ELEMENT POBOX (#PCDATA)>
    <!ELEMENT EXTADR (#PCDATA)>
    <!ELEMENT STREET (#PCDATA)>
    <!ELEMENT LOCALITY (#PCDATA)>
    <!ELEMENT REGION (#PCDATA)>
    <!ELEMENT PCODE (#PCDATA)>
    <!ELEMENT CTRY (#PCDATA)>

  <!-- Address label property. -->
  <!ELEMENT LABEL (
    HOME?, 
    WORK?, 
    POSTAL?, 
    PARCEL?, 
    (DOM | INTL)?, 
    PREF?, 
    LINE+
  )>

    <!-- Individual label lines. -->
    <!ELEMENT LINE (#PCDATA)>

  <!-- Telephone number property. -->
  <!ELEMENT TEL (
    HOME?, 
    WORK?, 
    VOICE?, 
    FAX?, 
    PAGER?, 
    MSG?, 
    CELL?, 
    VIDEO?, 
    BBS?, 
    MODEM?, 
    ISDN?, 
    PCS?, 
    PREF?, 
    NUMBER
  )>

    <!-- Phone number value. -->
    <!ELEMENT NUMBER (#PCDATA)>

  <!-- Email address property. Default type is INTERNET. -->
  <!ELEMENT EMAIL (
    HOME?, 
    WORK?, 
    INTERNET?, 
    X400?, 
    USERID
  )>

    <!ELEMENT USERID (#PCDATA)>
  
  <!-- Jabber ID. Value must be in the form of user@host. -->
  <!ELEMENT JABBERID (#PCDATA)>
  
  <!-- Mailer (e.g., Mail User Agent Type) property. -->
  <!ELEMENT MAILER (#PCDATA)>
  
  <!-- Time zone's Standard Time UTC offset. Value must be an
    ISO 8601 formatted UTC offset. -->
  <!ELEMENT TZ (#PCDATA)>
  
  <!-- Geographical position. Values are the decimal degress of
    LATitude and LONgitude. The value should be specified to 
    six decimal places.-->
  <!ELEMENT GEO (LAT, LON)>
  
    <!-- Latitude value. -->
    <!ELEMENT LAT (#PCDATA)>
	
    <!-- Longitude value. -->
    <!ELEMENT LON (#PCDATA)>
	
  <!-- Title property. -->
  <!ELEMENT TITLE (#PCDATA)>

  <!-- Role property. -->
  <!ELEMENT ROLE (#PCDATA)>
  
  <!-- Organization logo property. -->
  <!ELEMENT LOGO ((TYPE, BINVAL) | EXTVAL)>
  
  <!-- Administrative agent property. -->
  <!ELEMENT AGENT (vCard | EXTVAL)>
  
  <!-- Organizational name and units property. -->
  <!ELEMENT ORG (ORGNAME, ORGUNIT*)>
  
    <!ELEMENT ORGNAME (#PCDATA)>
  
    <!ELEMENT ORGUNIT (#PCDATA)>
  
  <!-- Application specific categories property. -->
  <!ELEMENT CATEGORIES (KEYWORD+)>
  
    <!ELEMENT KEYWORD (#PCDATA)>
  
  <!-- Commentary note property. -->
  <!ELEMENT NOTE (#PCDATA)>
  
  <!-- Identifier of product that generated the vCard property. -->
  <!ELEMENT PRODID (#PCDATA)>
  
  <!-- Last revised property. The value must be an 
       ISO 8601 formatted UTC date/time. -->
  <!ELEMENT REV (#PCDATA)>
  
  <!-- Sort string property. -->
  <!ELEMENT SORT-STRING (#PCDATA)>
  
  <!-- Formatted name pronunciation property. The value is 
       either a textual phonetic pronunciation, a BASE64 
       encoded binary digital audio pronunciation or a URI to
       an external binary digital audio pronunciation.-->	
  <!ELEMENT SOUND (PHONETIC | BINVAL | EXTVAL)>
  
    <!-- Textual phonetic pronunciation. -->
    <!ELEMENT PHONETIC (#PCDATA)>
   
  <!-- Unique identifier property. -->
  <!ELEMENT UID (#PCDATA)>
  
  <!-- Directory URL property. -->
  <!ELEMENT URL (#PCDATA)>

  <!-- Description. -->
  <!ELEMENT DESC (#PCDATA)>
  
  <!-- Privacy classification property. -->
  <!ELEMENT CLASS (PUBLIC | PRIVATE | CONFIDENTIAL)>
  
    <!ELEMENT PUBLIC EMPTY>
	
    <!ELEMENT PRIVATE EMPTY>
	
    <!ELEMENT CONFIDENTIAL EMPTY>
	
  <!-- Authentication credential or encryption  key property. -->
  <!ELEMENT KEY (TYPE?, CRED)>
  
    <!ELEMENT CRED (#PCDATA)>

<!-- ==== -->

<!-- Common elements. -->

<!-- Addressing type indicators. -->
<!ELEMENT HOME EMPTY>
<!ELEMENT WORK EMPTY>
<!ELEMENT POSTAL EMPTY>
<!ELEMENT PARCEL EMPTY>
<!ELEMENT DOM EMPTY>
<!ELEMENT INTL EMPTY>
<!ELEMENT PREF EMPTY>
<!ELEMENT VOICE EMPTY>
<!ELEMENT FAX EMPTY>
<!ELEMENT PAGER EMPTY>
<!ELEMENT MSG EMPTY>
<!ELEMENT CELL EMPTY>
<!ELEMENT VIDEO EMPTY>
<!ELEMENT BBS EMPTY>
<!ELEMENT MODEM EMPTY>
<!ELEMENT ISDN EMPTY>
<!ELEMENT PCS EMPTY>
<!ELEMENT INTERNET EMPTY>
<!ELEMENT X400 EMPTY>

<!-- Format type parameter. -->
<!ELEMENT TYPE (#PCDATA)>

<!-- Base64 encoded binary value. -->
<!ELEMENT BINVAL (#PCDATA)>

<!-- URI to external binary value -->
<!ELEMENT EXTVAL (#PCDATA)>

<!-- ==== -->
          


 TOC 

Appendix E. Revision History

Note to RFC editor: please remove this entire appendix, and the corresponding entries in the table of contents, prior to publication.

E.1 Changes from draft-ietf-xmpp-im-01

E.2 Changes from draft-ietf-xmpp-im-00

E.3 Changes from draft-miller-xmpp-im-02



 TOC 

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Acknowledgement