This document specifies an XML format for encapsulating DTMF data in informational messages sent within the context of Jingle audio interactions.
WARNING: This Standards-Track document is Experimental. Publication as an XMPP Extension Protocol does not imply approval of this proposal by the Jabber Software Foundation. Implementation of the protocol described herein is encouraged in exploratory implementations, but production systems should not deploy implementations of this protocol until it advances to a status of Draft.
Type: Standards Track
Last Updated: 2006-07-12
Publishing Organization: Jabber Software Foundation
Approving Body: XMPP Council
Dependencies: XMPP Core, XEP-0166
Superseded By: None
Short Name: jingle-dtmf
Wiki Page: <http://wiki.jabber.org/index.php/Jingle DTMF (XEP-0181)>
This XMPP Extension Protocol is copyright 1999 - 2006 by the Jabber Software Foundation (JSF) and is in full conformance with the JSF's Intellectual Property Rights Policy <http://www.xmpp.org/extensions/ipr-policy.shtml>. This material may be distributed only subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the Creative Commons Attribution License (<http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/>).
The preferred venue for discussion of this document is the Standards-JIG discussion list: <http://mail.jabber.org/mailman/listinfo/standards-jig>.
The Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is defined in the XMPP Core (RFC 3920) and XMPP IM (RFC 3921) specifications contributed by the Jabber Software Foundation to the Internet Standards Process, which is managed by the Internet Engineering Task Force in accordance with RFC 2026. Any protocol defined in this document has been developed outside the Internet Standards Process and is to be understood as an extension to XMPP rather than as an evolution, development, or modification of XMPP itself.
The following keywords as used in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119: "MUST", "SHALL", "REQUIRED"; "MUST NOT", "SHALL NOT"; "SHOULD", "RECOMMENDED"; "SHOULD NOT", "NOT RECOMMENDED"; "MAY", "OPTIONAL".
Traditional telephony systems use Dual Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF) for dialing and to issue commands such as those used in Interactive Voice Response (IVR) applications. Internet telephony systems also use DTMF tones for interoperability with the public switched telephone network (PSTN). XMPP clients that use Jingle  for voice chat (see Jingle Audio Content Description Format ) MUST use the protocol described in this document if they wish to support DTMF.
The format for the XML DTMF format is as follows:
<dtmf xmlns='http://jabber.org/protocol/info/dtmf' action='button-down' code='integer' />
The <dtmf/> element SHOULD possess one 'action' attribute, which MUST be either "button-up" or "button-down", specifying whether the button is being depressed or released. This allows DTMF tones to be reconstructed in real-time. If the 'action' attribute is not included, the recipient MUST assume this to be a "button-down" event, and imply a "button-up" event after a reasonable timeout (100 milliseconds is RECOMMENDED) or when another DMTF event is received.
Unless, the 'action' attribute is 'button-up', the <dmtf/> element MUST possess a 'code' attribute that specifies the tone to be generated. The value of the 'code' attribute SHOULD be one the following characters: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, #, and * -- however, the characters A, B, C, and D MAY be sent as well. 
The <dtmf> element SHOULD be sent as the payload of a Jingle content-info message as illustrated in the following example.
<iq firstname.lastname@example.org/balcony' to='ivr.shakespeare.lit' id='dtmf1' type='set'> <jingle xmlns='http://jabber.org/protocol/jingle' action='content-info' email@example.com/balcony' sid='a73sjjvkla37jfea'> <dtmf xmlns='http://jabber.org/protocol/jingle/info/dtmf' code='7' action='button-up' /> </jingle> </iq>
Some applications may want to stream Jingle voice RTP directly to a non-XMPP entity, such as a SIP phone. In this scenario, DTMF needs to be sent in the content channel. Jingle DTMF allows to Jingle entities to negotiate whether to send RTP over the XMPP signalling channel as described above, or over the content channel, using RFC 2833.
To request that the voice session switches to RFC 2833, a client sends a <dtmf-method/> element, qualified by the 'http://jabber.org/protocol/info/dmtf' namespace as the payload of a Jingle content-info message:
<iq firstname.lastname@example.org/balcony' to='ivr.shakespeare.lit' id='dtmf2' type='set'> <jingle xmlns='http://jabber.org/protocol/jingle' action='content-info' email@example.com/balcony' sid='a73sjjvkla37jfea'> <dtmf-method xmlns='http://jabber.org/protocol/jingle/info/dtmf' method='rtp'> </jingle> </iq>
The dtmf-method element MUST contain one 'method' attribute, the value of which SHOULD be either 'rtp' or 'xmpp'.
If the recipient supports the requested DTMF method, it SHOULD send an empty IQ result:
<iq from='ivr.shakespeare.lit' firstname.lastname@example.org/balcony' id='dtmf2' type='result'/>
If the recipient does not supoprt the requested DTMF method, it MUST reply with a lt;feature-not-implemented/> error with a DTMF-specific error condition of <unsupported-dtmf-method/>:
<iq from='ivr.shakespeare.lit' email@example.com/balcony' id='dtmf2' type='error'> <error type='cancel'> <feature-not-implemented xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-stanzas'/> <unsupported-dtmf-method xmlns='http://jabber.org/protocol/jingle/info/dtmf#errors'/> </error> </iq>
This document introduces no known security vulnerabilities.
This document requires no interaction with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) .
The XMPP Registrar  shall include 'http://jabber.org/protocol/jingle/info/dtmf' in its registry of protocol namespaces.
<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> <xs:schema xmlns:xs='http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema' targetNamespace='http://jabber.org/protocol/jingle/info/dtmf' xmlns='http://jabber.org/protocol/jingle/info/dtmf' elementFormDefault='qualified'> <xs:element name='dtmf'> <xs:complexType> <xs:sequence> <xs:element ref='tone' minOccurs='1' maxOccurs='unbounded'/> </xs:sequence> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> <xs:element name='tone'> <xs:complexType> <xs:simpleContent> <xs:extension base='empty'> <xs:attribute name='code' type='DTMFString' use='required'/> <xs:attribute name='duration' type='xs:positiveInteger' use='optional'/> </xs:extension> </xs:simpleContent> </xs:complexType> </xs:element> </xs:element> <xs:simpleType name="DTMFString"> <xs:restriction base="xs:string"> <xs:pattern value="(#|\*|0|1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9|A|B|C|D)*" /> </xs:restriction> </xs:simpleType> <xs:simpleType name='empty'> <xs:restriction base='xs:string'> <xs:enumeration value=''/> </xs:restriction> </xs:simpleType> </xs:schema>
3. Although A, B, C, and D were originally defined as part of DTMF, they were never deployed to telephony consumers and were used only for control purposes at private branch exchanges (PBXs) and central office operator stations; however, they are used in certain non-telephony applications of DTMF, such as ham radio.
4. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the central coordinator for the assignment of unique parameter values for Internet protocols, such as port numbers and URI schemes. For further information, see <http://www.iana.org/>.
5. The XMPP Registrar maintains a list of reserved protocol namespaces as well as registries of parameters used in the context of XMPP extension protocols approved by the Jabber Software Foundation. For further information, see <http://www.xmpp.org/registrar/>.
Updated syntax to use action and code attributes rather than tone element in order to provide real-time interaction; specified how to negotiate use of the RFC 2833 format via content-info messages.(se/psa)
Allowed characters A, B, C, and D; updated schema.(psa)