Although XMPP Core  specifies the use of TCP as the method of connecting to an XMPP server, alternative connection methods exist, including the BOSH (XEP-0124)  method (for which XMPP Over BOSH (XEP-0206)  is the XMPP profile) and the websocket subprotocol specified in RFC 7395 . For some of these methods, it is necessary to discover further parameters before connecting, such as the HTTP URL of an alternative connection manager. Without ways to auto-discover alternative connection methods, the relevant information would need to be provided manually by a human user (which is cumbersome and error-prone) or hard-coded into XMPP software applications (which is brittle and not interoperable).
This document defines two ways to encapsulate information about alternative connection methods for auto-discovery:
The following format for DNS TXT resource records is specified in RFC 1464:
This document specifies that the following additional rules apply for DNS TXT resource records used to specify alternative connection methods:
The following business rules apply:
The following examples show two DNS TXT resource records: the first indicates support for the XMPP Over BOSH connection method defined in XEP-0124 and XEP-0206 and the second indicates support for XMPP over WebSocket connections defined in RFC 7395;.
The HTTP lookup method uses Web Host Metadata RFC 6415  to categorize and list the URIs of alternative connection methods. It is primarily intended for use by clients in environments where the ability to perform DNS queries is restricted, such as in web browsers.
The following business rules apply:
The following examples show two host-meta link records: the first indicates support for the XMPP Over BOSH connection method defined in XEP-0124 and XEP-0206 and the second indicates support for the XMPP Over WebSocket connection method defined in RFC 7395 .
It is possible to use additionally a JSON-based format for host-meta information. The JSON representation of the host metadata is named JRD and specified in Appendix A of RFC 6415 . The above XRD example would be presented in JRD as:
To make connection discovery work in web clients (including those hosted on a different domain) the host service SHOULD set appropriate CORS headers for Web Host Metadata files. The exact headers and values are out of scope of this document but may include: Access-Control-Allow-Origin, Access-Control-Allow-Methods and Access-Control-Allow-Headers.
Due care has to be exercised in limiting the scope of Access-Control-Allow-Origin response header to Web Host Metadata files only.
It is possible that advertisement of alternative connection methods can introduce security vulnerabilities, since a connecting entity (usually a client) might deliberately seek to connect using the method with the weakest security mechanisms (e.g., no channel encryption or relatively weak authentication). Care needs to be taken in determining which alternative connection methods are appropriate to advertise.
Entities that use these connection methods MUST conform to the security considerations of each method, for example by preferring to use 'https' or 'wss' URLs that are protected using Transport Layer Security (TLS).
Because the link relations specified here are extension relation types rather than registered relation types (see Section 4 of RFC 5988), this document requires no interaction with the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) .
The XMPP Registrar  maintains a registry of attributes for use in DNS TXT resource records that advertise alternative XMPP connection methods (see <https://xmpp.org/registrar/alt-connections.html>).
In order to submit new values to this registry, the registrant shall define an XML fragment of the following form and either include it in the relevant XMPP Extension Protocol or send it to the email address <email@example.com>:
The registrant can register more than one attribute at a time, each contained in a separate <method/> element.
This document registers the following values.
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This XMPP Extension Protocol is copyright © 1999 – 2020 by the XMPP Standards Foundation (XSF).
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this specification (the "Specification"), to make use of the Specification without restriction, including without limitation the rights to implement the Specification in a software program, deploy the Specification in a network service, and copy, modify, merge, publish, translate, distribute, sublicense, or sell copies of the Specification, and to permit persons to whom the Specification is furnished to do so, subject to the condition that the foregoing copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Specification. Unless separate permission is granted, modified works that are redistributed shall not contain misleading information regarding the authors, title, number, or publisher of the Specification, and shall not claim endorsement of the modified works by the authors, any organization or project to which the authors belong, or the XMPP Standards Foundation.
## NOTE WELL: This Specification is provided on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, express or implied, including, without limitation, any warranties or conditions of TITLE, NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY, or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. ##
In no event and under no legal theory, whether in tort (including negligence), contract, or otherwise, unless required by applicable law (such as deliberate and grossly negligent acts) or agreed to in writing, shall the XMPP Standards Foundation or any author of this Specification be liable for damages, including any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages of any character arising from, out of, or in connection with the Specification or the implementation, deployment, or other use of the Specification (including but not limited to damages for loss of goodwill, work stoppage, computer failure or malfunction, or any and all other commercial damages or losses), even if the XMPP Standards Foundation or such author has been advised of the possibility of such damages.
This XMPP Extension Protocol has been contributed in full conformance with the XSF's Intellectual Property Rights Policy (a copy of which can be found at <https://xmpp.org/about/xsf/ipr-policy> or obtained by writing to XMPP Standards Foundation, P.O. Box 787, Parker, CO 80134 USA).
The Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is defined in the XMPP Core (RFC 6120) and XMPP IM (RFC 6121) specifications contributed by the XMPP Standards Foundation to the Internet Standards Process, which is managed by the Internet Engineering Task Force in accordance with RFC 2026. Any protocol defined in this document has been developed outside the Internet Standards Process and is to be understood as an extension to XMPP rather than as an evolution, development, or modification of XMPP itself.
The primary venue for discussion of XMPP Extension Protocols is the <firstname.lastname@example.org> discussion list.
Discussion on other xmpp.org discussion lists might also be appropriate; see <http://xmpp.org/about/discuss.shtml> for a complete list.
Given that this XMPP Extension Protocol normatively references IETF technologies, discussion on the <email@example.com> list might also be appropriate.
Errata can be sent to <firstname.lastname@example.org>.
The following requirements keywords as used in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119: "MUST", "SHALL", "REQUIRED"; "MUST NOT", "SHALL NOT"; "SHOULD", "RECOMMENDED"; "SHOULD NOT", "NOT RECOMMENDED"; "MAY", "OPTIONAL".
5. The point of this rule is to prevent someone from defining a new XEP-0156 connection method like "_xmpp-client-tcp" to override the SRV records defined in the core XMPP specification.
8. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the central coordinator for the assignment of unique parameter values for Internet protocols, such as port numbers and URI schemes. For further information, see <http://www.iana.org/>.
9. The XMPP Registrar maintains a list of reserved protocol namespaces as well as registries of parameters used in the context of XMPP extension protocols approved by the XMPP Standards Foundation. For further information, see <https://xmpp.org/registrar/>.
Note: Older versions of this specification might be available at http://xmpp.org/extensions/attic/
Fix reference to RFC 6415 and organize requirements more clearly. This raises the JSON requirement from MAY (OPTIONAL) to SHOULD (effectively), to accustom web-based software.
Add information about CORS header usage and requirements
Make JSON example less error-prone.
Fix XML header on example.
Replace references to draft-ietf-xmpp-websocket with RFC7395 (XMPP over WebSocket).
Fix a small typo in one of the examples (UTF-9 encoding).
Defined HTTP lookup methods using well-known URIs as specified in RFC 5785.
Per a vote of the XMPP Council, advanced status to Draft; XMPP Registrar assigned alt-connections shortname and created appropriate registry.
Updated to reflect renaming of HTTP Binding to XMPP Over BOSH.
Finally and definitively removed _xmpp-client-tcp and _xmpp-server-tcp attributes since clients and servers should use either SRV records or standard XMPP ports (5222 or 5269).
Removed _xmpp-client-tcpssl attribute since use of the old-style SSL-only port is discouraged.
Added _xmpp-client-tcpssl for old-style SSL connections; added discussion of IETF U-NAPTR technology.
Clarified order of lookups; restored _xmpp-client-tcp and added _xmpp-server-tcp as optional records if SRV is not supported or accessible.
Removed _xmpp-client-tcp from TXT records (belongs in SRV records only).
More fully specified the rationale for using DNS TXT records.
Added security considerations and registrar considerations.