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Multi-User Chat (XEP-0045)  defines a full-featured technology for multi-user text conferencing in XMPP. By design, XEP-0045 assumes that a conference room is hosted at a single service, which can be accessed from any point on the network. However, this assumption introduces a single point of failure for the conference room, since if occupants at a using domain lose connectivity to the hosting domain then they also lose connectivity to the room. In some deployment scenarios (and even on the open Internet) this behavior is suboptimal. Therefore, this document attempts to define a technology for distributing MUC rooms across multiple services.
The basic approach to distribution of MUC rooms is as follows:
A user creates a room on a service and configures it as "distributed" (or the service assumes that the room is distributed based on local service policy); this first instance of the room is called a SOURCE and the service on which it is created is called a FIRSTHOST.
The firsthost can immediately request that other services (called PEERHOSTS) replicate the room by creating their own local instances (called SHADOWS); alternatively, the firsthost can wait to send the replication request until users from the peerhost have joined the room.
If a user from the peerhost attempts to join the source room after replication is established, the firsthost invites the user to join the shadow rather than the source by sending a direct invitation to the user.
As long as the peerhost and firsthost have connectivity, they share room messages, room rosters, and room configuration changes in real time. If any conflict arises, the firsthost's information rules since it is "first among equals".
If the peerhost loses connectivity to the firsthost, it maintains the shadow, including local room history, room roster, and room configuration, and if possible also maintains connectivity with other peerhosts.
Upon reconnecting to the firsthost, a peerhost exchanges room history and room rosters with the firsthost and receives room configuration data (if modified).
The room IDs of source rooms SHOULD be opaque to users and unique across all possible peerhosts, for example by generating a UUID in accordance with RFC 4122  or by hashing the human-readable name of the room using the SHA-256 algorithm in accordance with SHA .
When the original room owner creates the room (or subsequently configures the room), the service MAY offer the option of making the room a "distributed room". This is done by including the "muc#roomconfig_distributed" feature in the room configuration form:
The room owner specifies a value of "1" or "true"  if room distribution is desired:
Alternatively, the firsthost can choose to perform room distribution in the background, rather than exposing the 'muc#roomconfig_distributed' option to the user.
When a firsthost would like a peerhost to provide a shadow, it sends a replication request to the peerhost.
If the peerhost is willing and able to replicate the room, it returns an IQ-result:
Several error cases are possible (the peerhost is resource constrained, the firsthost is forbidden to peer with the peerhost, etc.); these will be specified more fully in a future version of this specification.
Once the peerhost acknowledges that it is willing and able to replicate the room, four things happen:
The source sends the room configuration to the shadow.
The source sends the room roster to the shadow.
The shadow optinoally requests the room history from the source.
The firsthost informs other peerhosts about the new peerhost.
The new shadow SHOULD request the room history. This is done by sending an IQ-get from the shadow to the source, containing a <history/> element qualified by the 'http://jabber.org/protocol/muc' namespace (the syntax and semantics of this element are described in XEP-0045).
The history request MAY include any of the attributes specified in XEP-0045:: 'maxchars', 'maxstanzas', 'seconds', and 'since'.
The firsthost also informs other connected peerhosts about the new peerhost.
When a user attempts to join a source room, the firsthost determines if it will invite the user to join a shadow at a peerhost instead. The process for determining when to send invitations is implementation specific and might be subject to configuration at the firsthost (e.g., the firsthost might send invitations only to users of a domain associated with the peerhost and only after a certain number of such users have joined the room at the firsthost).
To begin, a user at the peerhost attempts to join the source room at the firsthost:
The source room returns a <redirect/> presence error to the user and invites the user to join a shadow room instead.
The shadow then informs the source (and any other shadows) of the user's presence; it does so by sending presence from the roomjid of the user at the shadow to a roomjid with the same roomnick at the source and shadow(s).
The source then delivers that presence stanza to its local users. (Note: The shadow needs to send only one presence stanza to the source, thus reducing the number of stanzas sent over the server-to-server link between the peerhost and the firsthost.)
When a user sends a message to an instance, the instance sends the message to its local occupants and to other instances.
The source then delivers that message stanza to its local users. (Note: The shadow needs to send only one message stanza to the source, thus reducing the number of stanzas sent over the server-to-server link between the peerhost and the firsthost.)
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this specification (the "Specification"), to make use of the Specification without restriction, including without limitation the rights to implement the Specification in a software program, deploy the Specification in a network service, and copy, modify, merge, publish, translate, distribute, sublicense, or sell copies of the Specification, and to permit persons to whom the Specification is furnished to do so, subject to the condition that the foregoing copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Specification. Unless separate permission is granted, modified works that are redistributed shall not contain misleading information regarding the authors, title, number, or publisher of the Specification, and shall not claim endorsement of the modified works by the authors, any organization or project to which the authors belong, or the XMPP Standards Foundation.
Disclaimer of Warranty
## NOTE WELL: This Specification is provided on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, express or implied, including, without limitation, any warranties or conditions of TITLE, NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY, or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. ##
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In no event and under no legal theory, whether in tort (including negligence), contract, or otherwise, unless required by applicable law (such as deliberate and grossly negligent acts) or agreed to in writing, shall the XMPP Standards Foundation or any author of this Specification be liable for damages, including any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages of any character arising from, out of, or in connection with the Specification or the implementation, deployment, or other use of the Specification (including but not limited to damages for loss of goodwill, work stoppage, computer failure or malfunction, or any and all other commercial damages or losses), even if the XMPP Standards Foundation or such author has been advised of the possibility of such damages.
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The Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is defined in the XMPP Core (RFC 6120) and XMPP IM (RFC 6121) specifications contributed by the XMPP Standards Foundation to the Internet Standards Process, which is managed by the Internet Engineering Task Force in accordance with RFC 2026. Any protocol defined in this document has been developed outside the Internet Standards Process and is to be understood as an extension to XMPP rather than as an evolution, development, or modification of XMPP itself.
The following requirements keywords as used in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119: "MUST", "SHALL", "REQUIRED"; "MUST NOT", "SHALL NOT"; "SHOULD", "RECOMMENDED"; "SHOULD NOT", "NOT RECOMMENDED"; "MAY", "OPTIONAL".
4. In accordance with Section 126.96.36.199 of XML Schema Part 2: Datatypes, the allowable lexical representations for the xs:boolean datatype are the strings "0" and "false" for the concept 'false' and the strings "1" and "true" for the concept 'true'; implementations MUST support both styles of lexical representation.
7. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the central coordinator for the assignment of unique parameter values for Internet protocols, such as port numbers and URI schemes. For further information, see <http://www.iana.org/>.
8. The XMPP Registrar maintains a list of reserved protocol namespaces as well as registries of parameters used in the context of XMPP extension protocols approved by the XMPP Standards Foundation. For further information, see <https://xmpp.org/registrar/>.